Saturday, August 17, 2019
In 1972 the Cross Bronx Expressway was completed; this marked the separation of the southern Bronx and was followed by the Ã¢â¬Å"Bronx is burningÃ¢â¬ which began the downward spiral for this urban, African American neighborhood. Around the same time hip-hop was founded and became an outlet for the frustrations of the poor, suffering people of this region. The result was the culture of hip-hop that glorifies violence, drugs, money, and a gangster persona. This has become the image of the Hip Hop artist, and is used by musicians to gain the approval or Ã¢â¬Å"street credÃ¢â¬ of their fans/peers. With this proof of authenticity, however, many rap/hip-hop artists have sent messages of criticism and condemnation of the life in the Ã¢â¬Å"hoodÃ¢â¬ and the failures of the Civil Rights Movement. In the song Ã¢â¬Å"Hate it or Love it,Ã¢â¬ these themes of hip-hop are portrayed throughout the song. Rappers The Game and 50 Cent both use signification and realism to gain credibility and critique the failures of the Civil Rights generation. As defined by Imani Perry, a processor of African American studies at Princeton University, realism Ã¢â¬Å"encourages a critique of the media and reflects the significant realities of social inequalityÃ¢â¬ and signifying Ã¢â¬Å"[is] a metaphor for the revision of previous texts and figures (Perry, 61, 101).Ã¢â¬ Credibility is an idea that is very important in hip-hop. It is often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"keeping it realÃ¢â¬ and calls attention to the authenticity of the rap artist (Perry, 87). According to Imani Perry, this entails maintaining Ã¢â¬Å"allegiance to black youth populations or subgroups within [their] community.Ã¢â¬ Most enthusiasts believe that hip-hop artists should stay true to their roots and stick with the style of their home-region. The Game stays Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ by recording Ã¢â¬Å"Hate it or Love itÃ¢â¬ as West Coast style hip-hop and visually signifying N.W.A. (a hip-hop group also from the same city of Compton, CA) in the music video. The song also allows featured artist 50 Cent the chance to stay authentic when he signifies Tupac and Rakim, both of which were also from New York. The Game and 50 Cent though not directly sampling from these artist do cover the identity their predecessors created; as a result, they cover and maintain allegiance to the image of men from black American urban communities. In addition to signifying, Ã¢â¬Å"Hate it or Love itÃ¢â¬ uses realism throughout its lyrics to build credibility with the audience. Rappers/ Hip-Hop artists are expected to Ã¢â¬Å"witnessÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"live outÃ¢â¬ the narratives that they tell. 50 Cent starts the song saying, Ã¢â¬Å"letÃ¢â¬â¢s takeÃ¢â¬â¢em backÃ¢â¬ signifying the transition to story of a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ time before he or The Game were known rappers. Both artist reference this reality by disclosing details of ghetto/gangster life in lines like Ã¢â¬Å"Brenda is still throwing babies in the garbage,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"niggas had stole my bike,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"one phone callÃ¢â¬â¢ll have your body dumped in marshes.Ã¢â¬ These phrases all refer to personal or witnessed events that describe the problems like teenage pregnancy, theft, and gang violence in black American urban communities. This Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ regardless of truth authenticates the rapper because it shows he has experienced the pa ins of racism, and poverty. It gives the listener a reason to believe the artist can sympathize with his/her own struggles and authenticates the words in the song. Imani Perry also says that, Ã¢â¬Å"[Realism is a] testimony to the emotional state resulting from the experience of poverty, blackness, and the crisis of urbanity (Perry, 87).Ã¢â¬ After proving oneself as Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ and establishing their ability to relate to black America, rap artist can further their credibility by targeting the emotional hardships of urban poverty. 50 Cent conveys these emotions when he raps, Ã¢â¬Å"Different day, same shit, ainÃ¢â¬â¢t nothing good in the hood. IÃ¢â¬â¢d run away from this bitch and never come back if I could.Ã¢â¬ Here he expresses a genuine hate for the Ã¢â¬Å"hoodÃ¢â¬ and shows his vulnerability as a child, a sentiment not often admitted to in rap. It is this type of realism and openness with emotions that gives musicians the chance to connect and gain trust from the audience. With trust, sup port, and belief in the lyrics, credibility is established. The artist becomes Ã¢â¬Å"real.Ã¢â¬ Establishing a sense of being Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ is not restricted to the lyrics. In the music video for Ã¢â¬Å"Hate it or Love it,Ã¢â¬ The Game employs several images that create both emotion and establish his Ã¢â¬Å"witnessingÃ¢â¬ of gangster life. For example, both 50 Cent and The Game are represented as children in the music video. They are shown alone in an empty house, standing next to a dead body, and being arrested (as a child and adult). These pictures create feelings of pity and sorrow for the young rappers who appear to have nobody looking out for them, a truth often seen in poor urban communities. This again earns credibility for the rappers because it shows they have Ã¢â¬Å"lived outÃ¢â¬ the experiences that they rap about. (Perry, 90) With this evidence of living as a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ African American, The Game and 50 Cent progress toward a manifestation of respect by contrasting the hood with their new Ã¢â¬Å"reality.Ã¢â¬ This new life is what Nelson Geor ge would describe as, Ã¢â¬Å"the black man crave[ing] a context for that style, one that often comes as part of a male-dominated collective (George, 52).Ã¢â¬ In other words, 50 Cent and The Game must cover a glorified version of Ã¢â¬Å"that styleÃ¢â¬ ascribed to the black, male demographic to earn respect from their peers. This glamorized image of blackness is seen throughout the Ã¢â¬Å"Hate it or Love itÃ¢â¬ music video. The Game is shown standing on top of a building in suburban Los Angles, cruzing down the Boulevard in a red convertible, and wearing two Jacob watches. These images are all a Ã¢â¬Å"signifying call-response tropeÃ¢â¬ between rapper to rapper and rapper to audience (Perry, 62). These images of wealth, and power are a cover of African American maleÃ¢â¬â¢s desired collective style, a style formed by the previous generation of rappers, and a style African American public continually tries to mimic. It is with the success of achieving this Ã¢â¬Å"styleÃ¢â¬ that 50 Cent and The Game earn respect, and it is with this respect that they gain that final amount of credibility that makes them Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ rap art ists. Realism is not restricted to the construction of credibility for an artist, it also has the ability to inform listeners about life in the Ã¢â¬Å"hood.Ã¢â¬ Imani Perry describes this type of realism as a Ã¢â¬Å"telling narrative.Ã¢â¬ She says, Ã¢â¬Å"[a telling narrative] is to inform and enlighten rather than simply depict (Perry, 91).Ã¢â¬ The Game accomplished this throughout the lyrics in his song. He raps, Ã¢â¬Å"Thinking how they spent 30 million dollars on airplanes when thereÃ¢â¬â¢s kids starving,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"No schoolbooks, they used that wood to build coffins.Ã¢â¬ These two lines are extremely powerful and a harsh criticism of society as a whole. These words Ã¢â¬Å"enlightenÃ¢â¬ us of problems for children in black urban communities like hunger, poor education, and violence. The Game shows contrast when rapping that we spend Ã¢â¬Å"30 million dollars on airplanes.Ã¢â¬ He is clearly condemning society for its failure to take responsibility for African American children despite the availability of resources. A telling narrative does not only express disapproval for society in general, but also Ã¢â¬Å"provides an internal critique of sociological conditions and the prospects of social control through planned communities (Perry, 91).Ã¢â¬ The possibility of Ã¢â¬Å"social controlÃ¢â¬ or an improvement of life style is implicitly suggested in The GameÃ¢â¬â¢s lyrics. He repeatedly shows the availability of wealth with references to items like Ã¢â¬Å"JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s watches,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Mercedes Benz,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sheepskin coats.Ã¢â¬ 50 Cent however provides a true internal critique of the African American community, not just society as a whole. Within the first stanza 50 Cent recounts the poor/lack of parenting he received from his mother and father. He says, Ã¢â¬ Coming up I was confused, my mom kissing a girl/Confusion occurs coming up in the cold world/Daddy ainÃ¢â¬â¢t around, probably out committing felonies.Ã¢â¬ These three lines are a direct criticism of 50 CentÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and other ghetto parents of the same generation, the children from the Civil Rights Movement. It is commenting on their collective failure to use the momentum of the civil rights movement as a medium for change. Instead, many, like 50 CentÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, went the opposite route. They fell into illegal activities and abandoned their children. This Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ of an illegal life is further exemplified when 50 Cent says, Ã¢â¬Å"I wanna live good, so shit I sell dope.Ã¢â¬ With no parents, money, or real support, children of the Civil rights generation had to turn to drugs and other illegal activities to Ã¢â¬Å"live good.Ã¢â¬ Through these types of lyrics, 50 Cent and The Game Ã¢â¬Å"informÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"critiqueÃ¢â¬ life in urban black neighborhoods. Criticism of ghetto life and the disappointment of the Civil RightÃ¢â¬â¢s generation are also accomplished with the use of signification. According to Imani Perry, Ã¢â¬Å"Signifyin(g) is a way of saying one thing and meaning another (Perry, 61).Ã¢â¬ The Game successfully does this with both images and lyrics. For example, he raps Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ËPac is gone and Brenda still throwing babies in the garbage/I wanna know Ã¢â¬ËWhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Going OnÃ¢â¬â¢ like I hear Marvin.Ã¢â¬ This literally is somewhat confusing; however, if we look beyond the referencing previous black artist, The Game is Ã¢â¬Å"signifyingÃ¢â¬ problems that the African American community has been enduring since the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s. Brenda, for instance, is not literally Ã¢â¬Å"throwing babies in the garbage.Ã¢â¬ Rather, The Game is addressing the continued issue of teen pregnancy in black urban communities and criticizing the lack of change in these problems. He is looking at a similar underlying Ã¢â¬Å"meaningÃ¢â¬ when he references Marvin GayeÃ¢â¬â¢s song Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Going On.Ã¢â¬ An artist from the era of the Civil RightÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement, Gaye was concerned with issue of drug addiction, poverty, and the Vietnam War. It is clear that the Game is concerned with the lack of change that has occurred since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and is calling out the failures of society. The Game continues this use of signifying as social commentator by sampling the background music from The TrammpsÃ¢â¬â¢ song Ã¢â¬Å"Rubberband.Ã¢â¬ It is this Ã¢â¬Å"imitationÃ¢â¬ , as Glenn Gould calls it, that Ã¢â¬Å"[gives] art importance.Ã¢â¬ (Gould, 58) Gould argues that imitation Ã¢â¬Å"upsets the idea of progress.Ã¢â¬ This is exactly what The Game and 50 Cent are indicating. Since the Civil Rights Movement, the generation of the Trammps, there has been limited progress. The Game is thus Ã¢â¬Å"imitatingÃ¢â¬ and covering a lack of change. He is criticizing the black peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to make change happen. Progress for African Americans has been limited since the Civil Rights Movement. Despite the lack of change, many people have tried to help, improve, challenge, and change the urban black AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life. Rappers, like The Game and 50 Cent, release music that alludes to the gangster life and its hardships. This signification often is criticized as an Ã¢â¬Å"affirmation of stereotypes;Ã¢â¬ however, on a deeper level the music is Ã¢â¬Å"challeng[ing] the assumptionsÃ¢â¬ of what a black man is (Perry, 61). When The Game ends his music video, he stands looking at the camera holding, kissing, and loving his baby. Looking directly at the camera he is staring into every African American home in America saying I will be different, I will be a good father, I will make a change. The Game understands the power he has as a rapper, and though this may not be a revolution like the Civil Rights Movement, it sends a message that change is possible even if it is one person at a ti me.
Be The term, Ã¢â¬Å"student athleteÃ¢â¬ is a polarizing one. In todays America, college sports particularly football and basketball, are as much a part of the sports enthusiast's landscape as is any professional sport. In any case, with enthusiasm comes money. In this case, billions of dollars are generated by television viewership, merchandise sales and university boosters. College athletes are the driving force behind an industry where television executives, university presidents, athletic directors and coaches are compensated in a manner which makes them among the most wealthy eople in the world.The athletes receive in return an education from a well respected university, along with name and sometimes facial recognition in their fields of interest. However, the student on a physics scholarship receives the same opportunity for education and name recognition in his field that the athlete does. The difference is, the physics student isn't selling millions of dollars worth of Jers eys. The physics student is also allowed to pursue compensation for applying his craft as he sees fit while enrolled at the university while the athlete is not allowed to work or ven accept perks brought about by his celebrity.The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) serves as the oppressive monopoly which seeks to capitalize on the dreams of young athletes by requiring their servitude, likeness and name in exchange for the slimmest of opportunities to attract employment in their field of interest. Like any other oppressor or monopoly that came before it, the NCAA should be abolished and replaced with a model that is mindful of equality, as well as human and civil rights.The NCAA has blocked every road that an athlete may have to apitalize on his hard work during his time at his respective university. Only recently has the legality of such roadblocks been challenged. Due to its litany of regulations designed to stifle player movement or compensation, many, such as Pulitze r prize winning author and historian Taylor Branch, have argued that the current structure of the NCAA rivals that of a slave plantation or drug cartel.Branch scoffs at the correlation between the terms Ã¢â¬Å"student athleteÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"amateur,Ã¢â¬ stating in an article in The Atlantic, Ã¢â¬Å"No legal definition of amateur exists, and any attempt to create one in nforceable law would expose its repulsive and unconstitutional nature a bill of attainder, stripping from college athletes the rights of American citizenship. Ã¢â¬ (Branch 2). At the heart of that argument is the question, what constitutes an employee? Blacks Law dictionary defines Ã¢â¬Å"employeeÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"a person in the service of another under any contract of hire, expressed or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control or direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performedÃ¢â¬ (Muhl 2). An athletic scholarship is clear example of a ritten contract which both overtly and implicitly stipulates that the school is willing to exchange an education for the athlete's services on the school's sports team.
Friday, August 16, 2019
The use of internet in a classroom has provided only a few visible advantages to the students: search immediate answers to questions asked by the instructor, and familiarity with the use of technology, which may be used by them in the later stages of their professional career. However, an in-class internet use has several adverse consequences, including, distraction to oneself, neighboring students as well as the instructor, and abuse of internet technology when the students watch porn, or indulge in chatting, whereas their attention should be on the valuable focused content being taught by an experienced professor. Based on the findings from University of Colorado in Boulder, Fischman (2009) reported that a professor was instrumental in reducing the use of laptops in her classroom when she proved to the students that their grades were lower when they used the laptops in the classroom, while the grades were much higher when they stopped using the laptops in the classroom. Fischman highlighted that the internet connectivity of classrooms was a major problem all over the country since the students distract others by watching movies in the classroom. As a result, several universities had banned the use of laptops in the classrooms, while some had declared laptop-free zones. Anderson (2006) summarized the shocking results of a survey conducted by Michigan State University, which revealed that 20% of students using excessive internet, had either withdrawn from a course, or had shown lower grades; in comparison to only 8. 5% students with alcohol abuse problems, who had shown poor academic performance. Timmer (2009) claimed that in-class internet use spoils discipline in a leaning environment since the students from US Military Academy at West Point were distracted when they indulged in internet chatting. Thus, it can be concluded that in-class internet use is more of a bane than a boon for the inquisitive students as well as the experienced instructors. References Anderson, N. (September 20, 2006). Internet replaces Jack DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s as Ã¢â¬Å"Best excuse for a C Average. Ã¢â¬ Ars Technica. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://digg. com/d12unJ Fischman, J. (March 16, 2009). Students stop surfing after being shown how in-class laptop use lowers test scores. Wired Campus. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://chronicle. com/wiredcampus/article/3662/when-shown-how-in-class-laptop-use-lowers-test-scores-students-stop-surfing Timmer, J. (March 16, 2009). In-class laptop use sparks backlash, possibly lower grades. Ars Technica. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://arstechnica. com/science/news/2009/03/in-class-laptop-use-may-be-sparking-a-backlash. ars
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ , written in 1937, is set in America during the Great Depression and tells the tragic story of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced ranch workers who move from place to place in search of jobs. All of the characters in Of Mice and Men are most definitely not powerless. CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has control over the other ranchers despite being a female, Lennie though unintelligent has power through his physical strength and George, who although has Lennie to take care of can make his own decisions and live independently. First and foremost, CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is not powerless because she has supreme authority over the ranchers. Although she is a female, all CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has to do is complain to Curly about one of the ranchers and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re canned, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Curly maybe ainÃ¢â¬â¢t gonna like his wife out in the barnÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . Subsequently, CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has authority over Crooks because he is a negro. She could not only get him canned, but killed, Ã¢â¬Å"I could get you strung up in a tree so easy it ainÃ¢â¬â¢t even funny.Ã¢â¬ CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is certainly not powerless in Of Mice and Men. Furthermore, Lennie is not helpless because of his physical strength. Despite him not being the smartest tool in the shed by a long shot, Lennie still has power over the other ranchers because of his massive strength. Ã¢â¬Å"The next minute Curly was flopping like a fish on a line, and his fist was lost in LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s big hand.Ã¢â¬ Moreover, because of his strength he can Ã¢â¬Å"buck barleyÃ¢â¬ exceptionally well, meaning that without too much trouble he and George are able to find jobs, Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe he ainÃ¢â¬â¢t bright, but I never seen such a worker.Ã¢â¬ Lennie is absolutely not debilitated in Of Mice and Men. Penultimately, George is not disempowered because he can make his own decisions and be independent. Without a doubt George is affected by having to take care of Lennie, but he also could live fine on his own, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦if I was alone I could live so easy.Ã¢â¬ Additionally, although Lennie is a burden in many ways he also empowers George because he is stupid. George can tell Lennie to do whatever he likes, and Lennie will do it, Ã¢â¬Å"I turns to LennieÃ and says, Ã¢â¬ËJump in.Ã¢â¬â¢ AnÃ¢â¬â¢ he jumps.Ã¢â¬ George is unmistakably not impotent in Of Mice and Men. Conclusively, not all characters in Of Mice and Men are powerless. CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has unquestionable power over the ranchers, Lennie has power through his supreme strength and George has power through Lennie and his own ability to survive. How can anyone say that all the characters in Of Mice and Men are powerless?
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Justine Capps July 23, 2012 SPCH 1315 Ã¢â¬â Patton How to Perform CPR General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose:At the end of this speech, the audience will know how perform CPR. Central Idea:To perform CPR, you will check the scene for danger, send for help, and then begin chest compressions. I. INTRODUCTION: A. Attention Material 1. Has anyone ever wondered what they would do if somebody they knew had stopped breathing or heart had stopped? If so, you can restore circulation and oxygen to that person's' body by performing CPR. . Performing CPR can save a person's life. A person can live 4 to 6 minutes once they have stopped breathing and/or their heart has stopped breathing. Performing CPR canresuscitate that person. B. Orientating Material 1. CPR can restore resposiveness in a person who haslost resposiveness. C. Preview: Using 6 steps, almost anybody can perform CPR during an emergency. (Transition: Let's start with the first step of CPR. ) II. Body A. The first step of CPR is to make sure the scene is safe. 1.If it is not safe, for example, if there is a fire, extinguish the firethen begin CPR. 2. If you can not secure the victim, then move the victim. (Transition: Once you and the victim are secure, you are ready to begin the second step of CPR. ) B. The second step of CPR is to assess the victim's conciousness. 1. Tap his/her shoulder and ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you OK? Ã¢â¬ if the victim responds, CPR is not required. (Transition: If the victim does not respond continue with the third step of CPR. ) C. Send for somebody to call 911.If nobody else is available call 911. 1. Give your location and inform the dispatcher that you are going to perform CPR. (Transition: After sending for help, you will begin the fourth step of CPR. ) D. Next, you will check for breathing. 1. Put your ear close to the victim's mouth, and listen for breathing, if the victim is breathing do not continue with CPR. (Transition: If the victim is not breathing, continue with the next step. ) E. The fifth step of CPR is to perform 30 chest compressions. 1.Place the victim on his/her back. Make sure they are lying flat toprevent injury. 2. Place the heel of one had on the victim's breastbone, between the nipples. 3. Place your other hand on top of the first, palm down. 4. Postition yourself directly over your hands, so your arms are straight. 5. Press down by about 2 inches in a fast rhythm. (Transition: After performing 30 chest compressions, you will begin the last step. ) F. Immediately after performing 30 chest compressions you will give two rescue breaths. 1.Tilt the victim's head back to open the airway. 2. Keep the airway open, pinch the victim's nose closed. 3. Make a seal with your mouth over the victim's mouth and breathe out slowly for about one second. III. CONCLUSION A. Summary: You have now learned how to perform CPR. Whenever somebody has lost consciousness, you can now possibly save their life. B. Wrap up: Always continue CPR until emergency perso nnel arrive with an AED. C. You can obtain a Heartsaver CPR Certification through the American Heart Association.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Materiality in Auditing - Essay Example Materiality is more of a limit point than a main qualitative feature that the information must have so as to be significant. It shows the need of omission or presentation of the accountancy information that defines the decision making of the users of that information. The materiality that is adopted should represent the value in the report with which it is being determined. It should indicate whether the miss-statements and omissions in the accounts, show whether the accounts offer a true, complete, accurate and fair view of the financial position and performance of an entity. Consequently, materiality represents the degree of error under which the understanding and interpretation of the financial statements will not be greatly affected. On the other hand, it represents the degree of error that is acceptable in order to make a decision on whether the accounts are true or false (Maria and Franca 2012, p.268). According to Maria and Franca 2012, p.268, the major users of the financial audit reports are the shareholders. The audit report gives a guidance to the shareholders on how they will go about their business and on coming up with strategic decisions. The financial auditor assesses whether the true image of financial statements is observed. The assessment by auditors is necessary so as to ensure that the decisions of the shareholders are not influenced. To determine materiality the financial auditor is supposed to determine the user of the financial information; establish how the information and the process of making decisions are connected. He is also supposed to identify what decisions the user will take on the grounds of the audited financial statements. The financial auditor should make important comments regarding the scope of the financial audit that show the materiality. His liability is fixed to the important information established by a materiality determined by the financial auditor on the
Monday, August 12, 2019
Refutation in Thelogical Religion - Essay Example futation of religion does not involve only a refutation of theories regarding God and his kingdom but it necessarily involves a refutation to all possible authorities at once. Dostoevsky finds Nihilism to be the only alternative of religion and thus he supports a religious anarchy as a system which may allow human beings to dwell on earth with a piece that he compares to heavenly kingdom. However, on the other hand, handing over complete political authority to church had already shows threatening result which Dostoevsky himself had seen and considered as a result of political and economical lust in theological authorities which must choose to refute all worldly facilities and charms in order to sit on an authoritative position in religion. Compared to religious view of Dostoevsky, Freud and Sartre- who had borrowed a large part of their theories from Dostoevsky- proposed two analytical alternatives to understand the theory of religion. In his Origin of religion, Freud examines the idea for why men must find out a God whatever his situations are. In Brothers Karamazov Dostoevsky mentions there things that are necessary to mankind other than the Heavenly Bread of Bible, those are: Mystery, Miracle and Authority. Freud chooses authority as the reason why men always look for a superior creature that must be controlling at least some of his fate, if not all at once. Parallel to this idea, (Sartre) describes his theory of Ã¢â¬Ëbad faithÃ¢â¬â¢ to explain for how human being is infinitely free to choose just anything that he is afraid of his freedom and he seeks for a surrender to anything that provide him an alternative of facing his infinite freedom. As most of the empirical theories, including science, necessarily fails to describe about the nature of consciousness (or soul, spirit), the necessity of laws in nature and secret of life, people find out religion as providing them a shelter from their naked responsibility to find out a meaning in their existence. Resultantly,